The browser bug is related to previous Windows patch KB5000802/ KB5000808
The issue has been reported even for Firefox, not only for Chrome/Edge.
It is already well known and was introduced as mentioned by KB5000802 and KB5000808.

You will need to install the latest Microsoft update manually.
It is actually listed under recommended updates.

Install KB5001649,

And check if you get Windows version 10.0.19042.870 (previous one was 10.0.19042.868), also "870" that value must be equal, not only 19042.