To enable the language bar in Windows 10, do the following.

  1. Open Settings.
  2. Go to Time & language -> Keyboard.
  3. On the right, click on the link Advanced keyboard settings.
  4. On the next page, enable the option Use the desktop language bar when it's available.

You just enabled the language bar in Windows 10.

By default, it appears docked in the taskbar bar. You can make it floating as follows.

Enable Floating Language Bar
Note: This assumes that you have enabled the Language bar as described above.

  1. Click on the language icon in the taskbar.
  2. In the menu, select Show the language bar.This will make the language bar floating.
  3. Alternatively, you click the link Settings - Time & language - Keyboard - Advanced keyboard settings - Language bar options. 
  4. In the next dialog, select the option "Floating on Desktop" under "Language Bar".

The instructions above are applicable to Windows 10 Build 17074 and above. 

If you are running an older Windows 10 release:

To get the old language indicator and language bar in Windows 10, you need to do the following:

  1. Open the Settings app using any of these methods.
  2. Go to Time and Language -> Region and Language.
  3. Click on "Additional date, time, & regional settings". The following window will appear.
  4. Click the link Language. The Language window will be opened. Click the link "Advanced settings" on the left.
  5. In Advanced settings, tick the checkbox: "Use the desktop language bar when it's available".
  6. Click the "Change language bar hot keys" link. Open the "Language bar" tab and enable the "Docked in the taskbar" option.
  7. Click OK.

To restore the language bar in Windows 10, right click the language indicator and click the item "Restore language bar".